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Geleneksel ve fonksiyonel bir gıda olan kefirin mikrobiyolojik profili
(Microbiologic profile of kefir which is a traditional and functional food )

Author : Şeniz KARABIYIKLI  Seher DAŞTAN  
Type :
Printing Year : 2016
Number : 2016-1
Page : 75-83


Summary
Bu çalışmada endüstriyel olarak üretilen ve piyasaya sunulmuş üç adet kefir, geleneksel yöntemlerle ev koşullarında üretim için kullanılan üç adet kefir danesi ve bu danelerden laboratuvar koşullarında geleneksel yöntemlerle üretilmiş olan üç adet kefir örneğinin mikrobiyal profilleri belirlenmiştir. Kefir ve kefir danesi örneklerinin mikrobiyolojik profillerinin belirlenebilmesi için toplam mezofilik aerobik bakteri sayımı, toplam psikrofilik aerobik bakteri sayımı, asetik asit bakteri sayımı, laktik asit bakteri sayımı, maya sayımı, küf sayımı, koliform bakteri sayımı, Escherichia coli sayımı ve Staphylococcus aureus sayımı analizleri yapılmıştır. Analize alınan kefir ve kefir danesi örneklerinin toplam mezofilik aerobik bakteri sayısı 5,74 ile 8,50 log kob/ml-g, toplam psikrofilik aerobik bakteri sayısı <1,00 ile 7,44 log kob/ml-g, asetik asit bakteri sayısı 5,28 ile 7,55 log kob/ml-g, laktik asit bakteri sayısı 1,24 ile 7,91 log kob/ml-g, maya sayısı <1,00 ile 5,82 log kob/ml-g, küf sayısı <1,00 ile 3,04 log kob ml-g, koliform bakteri sayısı <3 ile >1100 EMS/ml-g, Escherichia coli sayısı <3 ile 49,66 EMS/ml-g aralığında olup örneklerin hiçbirinde Staphylococcus aureus tespit edilememiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar ürüne ilişkin mevcut tebliğ ve standartlar ile karşılaştırılmış ve ürünün biyoyararlılığı açısından sorgulanmıştır. Geleneksel koşullarda kefir danesi kullanılarak üretilen kefirlerde yaşanabilecek standardizasyon problemi hem ürünün güvenliğini hem de tekstürel ve/veya duyusal özelliklerini etkileyeceğinden ürünün endüstriyel koşullarda üretimi oldukça önemlidir. Bununla birlikte, probiyotik bir ürün olarak tüketilen kefirin özellikle piyasadan temin edilen örneklerine ilişkin elde edilen sonuçlar kefir üretim prosesinin gözden geçirilmesi ve mikrobiyal canlılığın sürdürülebilmesi için gerekli koşulların endüstriye aktarılması gerektiğini ortaya koymuştur.

Turkish Keywords
Kefir, kefir danesi, geleneksel gıda, fonksiyonel gıda, probiyotik.

Abstract
In this study, microbiological profiles of three kefir produced industrially and marketed, three kefir grains used for traditional production for home-scale and three kefir produced from these grains in laboratory by traditional methods were determined. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, total psychrophilic aerobic bacteria count, acetic acid bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria count, yeast count, mould count, coliform bacteria count, Escherichia coli count and Staphylococcus aureus count analyses were performed to determine the microbial profiles of kefir and kefir grain samples. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria count results of the kefir and kefir grain samples were between 5,74 and 8,50 log CFU/ml-g, total psychrophilic aerobic bacteria counts were between <1,00 and 7,44 log CFU/ml-g, acetic acid bacteria counts were between 5,28 and 7,55 log CFU/ml-g, lactic acid bacteria counts were between 1,24 and 7,91 log CFU/ml-g, yeast counts were between <1,00 and 5,82 log CFU/ml-g, mould counts were between <1,00 and 3,04 log CFU/ml-g, coliform bacteria counts were between <3 and >1100 MPN/ml-g, Escherichia coli counts were between <3 and 49,66 MPN/ml-g, and Staphylococcus aureus could not be detected in any of the samples. The results were compared with the current rescripts and standards, and were challenged in terms of bio-availability.

Keywords
Kefir, kefir grain, traditional food, functional food, probiotic.

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