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Türkiye’de ve Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi’nde Çayır-Mera Alanları, Hayvan Varlığı ve Yem Bitkileri Tarımının Bugünkü Durumu
(Current Situation of Meadow-Rangelands, Animal Existence and Cultivation for Forage Crops in Turkey and East Black Sea Region )

Author : Alpaslan KUŞVURAN  R. İrfan NAZLI Veyis TANSI  
Type :
Printing Year : 2011
Number : 2011-2
Page : 21-32


Summary
Türkiye çayır-mera alanları toplam 14.6 milyon ha’dır. Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi’nde ise bu miktar 782 bin ha olup, ülkemiz çayır-mera alanlarının %5.35’ini oluşturmaktadır. Türkiye’de toplam ekilen tarım arazisi içerisinde yem bitkileri ekim alanı %9.5 payla 1.6 milyon ha olup, Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi için ise yem bitkileri ekim alanı içinde bu oran %12.1’lik payla yaklaşık 200 bin ha’dır. Bununla birlikte ülkemizde yaklaşık 11 milyon, Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi’nde ise 1.1 milyon (%9.8) BBHB’ye eşdeğer hayvan sayısı vardır. Bu hayvanların beslenmesi için gerekli kuru kaba yem miktarı yıllık 50 milyon ton, Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi içinse yıllık 5 milyon tondur. Oysa çayır-mera alanları ve yem bitkileri yetiştiriciliklerinden elde edilen yem miktarı ihtiyacın yarısından daha azdır. Bu nedenle, uygun amenajman teknikleri ve ıslah çalışmaları ile mevcut mera alanlarında üretim ve devamlılık sağlanmalıdır. Ayrıca yem bitkileri ekim alanları artırılmalı, özellikle nadasa bırakılan alanlarda ekim nöbeti uygulamasına gidilerek yem bitkileri tarımına öncelik verilmelidir. Ülke genelinde ve Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi’nde her yöreye uygun yem bitkileri tür ve çeşitleri üzerine çalışmalar yapılmalı, elde edilen sonuçlar üreticiler ile paylaşılmalıdır. Yem bitkilerinde uygulanan desteklemeler artırılarak devam edilmeli ve tohumluk sorunu mutlaka çözülmelidir.

Turkish Keywords
Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi, Çayır-mera alanları, Hayvan besleme, Kaba yem, Yem bitkileri

Abstract
West Black Sea Region (WBSR) has meadow- range area of 782.000 ha and consists of 5.35% total meadow-range area in Turkey which corresponds 14.6 million ha. However, total cultivation of forage crops is 1.6 million ha in Turkey and corresponds to 9.5% of total cultivated agricultural area, 12.1% of total cultivated area of forage crops in Turkey exist in WBSR. At the same time, there is 11 million of animal existence equivalent to livestock unit in Turkey and 1.1 million (9.8%) in WBSR. In order to feed these animal existences, while 50 million ton of fodder crops are required yearly, 5 million ton is adequate for WBSR. Whereas, present forage production derived from forage crop cultivation and meadow-range areas could not meet even half of the need. Therefore, productivity and sustainability must be increased via the proper management techniques and the breeding studies in existing meadow area. Besides, cultivation area of forage crops should be increased and crop rotation must be generalized and priority should be given to forage crops within the crop rotation system particularly in fallow areas. In throughout the country and WBSR, adaptation and breeding studies related to forage crops should be conducted to determine the suitable species and cultivars for every region and the results should be shared with farmers. Present economic support for cultivation of forage crops should be continued and increased and above all, seed problem of forage crops should be solved surely as soon as possible.

Keywords
East Black Sea Region, Meadow-rangelands, Animal feeding, Fodder, Forage crops

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