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Sivas Yöresinde Buğday Tarımında Farklı Toprak İşleme Yöntemlerinin Toprak Özellikleri, Tarla Filiz Çıkışı Ve Verim Üzerine Etkileri
(The Effects of the Different Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Properties, Emergence and Wheat Yield in Sivas Province )

Author : Ebubekir ALTUNTAŞ  Osman Nuri BULUT  
Type :
Printing Year : 2015
Number : 2015-3
Page : 39-51


Summary
Bu çalışmada, Sivas koşullarında buğday tarımında farklı toprak işleme yöntemlerinin (GT: kulaklı pulluk+diskli tırmık+ekim; KT1: çizel+diskli tırmık+ekim, KT2: rotovatör+ekim, ve anıza ekim AE: anıza ekim makinası) toprak özellikleri, buğday bitkisinin çıkış özellikleri olan ortalama çıkış süresi (OÇS), çıkış oranı indeksi (ÇOİ) ve tarla filiz çıkış derecesi (TFÇD) ile buğday bitkisinin verim parametrelerine etkileri incelenerek değerlendirilmiştir. Toprağın 0-15 cm ve 15-30 cm derinliklerinde ölçülen toprağın nem içeriği değerinde, KT2 toprak işleme yöntemi ise en düşük değeri vermiştir. Toprağın hacim ağırlığı ve penetrasyon direnci değerlerinde AE anıza ekim yöntemi her iki toprak derinlik ortalamaları içerisinde en yüksek değeri vermiştir. Buğday bitkisinin çıkış özellikleri açısından, AE, KT1, KT2 ve GT yöntemleri için TFÇD değerleri ise, bu yöntemler için sırasıyla; % 85,00 % 71,10, % 83,90 ve % 87,20 olarak bulunmuştur. En yüksek TFÇD değeri GT toprak işleme yönteminde elde edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, birim alan tane verimi en yüksek 330 kg da-1 ile GT yönteminde, en düşük ise 293 kg da-1 ile AE yönteminde bulunmuştur. Farklı toprak işleme yöntemlerinde; bitki boyu, metrekaredeki başak sayısı ve başaktaki tane ağırlığı, değerleri KT2 toprak işleme yönteminde AE ve KT1 toprak işleme yöntemlerinden daha yüksek bulunmuştur.

Turkish Keywords
Buğday, toprak işleme yöntemleri, toprak özellikleri, verim

Abstract
In this study, the effects of four different tillage systems (GT: mouldboard plough+ disc harrow+planting; KT1: chisel+ disc harrow+planting; conservational-reduced soil tillage system KT2: rotovator+planting; no till planting AE: no till planter) on soil physical properties, plant emergence characteristics (mean emergence dates, emerged rate index, percentage of emerged seedling) and wheat yield components were investigated at wheat production in Sivas province. The lowest moisture content value was found in KT2 conservational tillage system for 0-15 cm and 15-30 soil depths. The highest soil bulk density and penetration resistance values were found in AE no till planting. According to wheat emergence characteristics; the percentage of emerged seedling for AE, KT1, KT2 and GT tillage systems varied as 85,00%, 71,11%, 83,89% and 87,20%, respectively. The highest percentage of emerged seedling (PE) was found in GT conventional soil tillage system. As a result of this study, the highest wheat yield was found as 330 kg da -1 in GT conventional soil tillage system, whereas, the lowest wheat yield was found as 293 kg da -1 in AE no tillage planting system. For among the soil tillage systems, the plant length, spike numbers per square meter and the kernel weight per spike were higher in KT2 conservational reduced tillage system than AE and KT1 soil tillage systems.

Keywords
Wheat, tillage systems, soil properties, percentage of emerged, yield

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