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Tokat Yöresinde Kiraz ve Vişne Ağaçlarında Ölümlere Neden Olan Hastalık Etmenlerinin Belirlenmesi
(Identification of Sudden Death Diseases On Sweet and Sour Cherry Orchards in Tokat Province )

Author : Özer ÇALIŞ  Yusuf YANAR  
Type :
Printing Year : 2015
Number : 2015-2
Page : 32-40


Summary
Türkiye Dünya kiraz ve vişne üretiminde ilk sıralarda olup bu sert çekirdekli meyvelerin üretiminde son yıllarda ciddi problemler yaşanmaktadır. Özellikle kiraz ve vişne ağaçlarında kısa sürede ölümlere neden olan hastalıklar görülmektedir. Bu çalışma kiraz ve vişne gibi sert çekirdekli meyve ağaçlarında görülen hastalık etmenlerini ortaya koymak, bu hastalık etmenlerini klasik ve moleküler olarak tanımlamak, Tokat kiraz ve vişne üretim alanlarındaki durumunu belirlemek ve ileride yapılacak çalışmalar için bir temel oluşturmayı amaçlamaktadır. Tokat Merkez, Pazar, Turhal, Niksar ve Erbaa kiraz ve vişne üretim alanlarında sürveyler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Sürveylerde toplanan bitki örneklerinden laboratuvarda fungus ve bakteriler ile fitoplazma ve virus hastalık etmenlerinin izolasyonu için besi ortamında ve toplam genomik DNA’da mikroorganizmalar araştırılmıştır. Besi ortamlarında gelişen fungal ve bakteriler özel besi yerlerinde saflaştırılarak tanılanmıştır. Gerçekleştirilen moleküler analizler toplam genomik DNA içerisinde ksileme, floeme özelleşmiş bakteriler ile virus etmenlerinin bulunmadığını ortaya koymuştur. Yapılan klasik tanı testleri ve patojenisite testleri kiraz ve vişnelerde kurumalara neden olan hastalık etmelerinin Leucostoma sp ve Alternaria sp olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Hastalık etmenlerinin tanılanmasıyla gelecekte yapılacak mücadele çalışmaları için önemli bir adım atılmıştır.

Turkish Keywords
Hastalıklar, kiraz ve vişne ağaçları, sürveyler, tanılama

Abstract
Turkey is in the top of among the most world's sweet and sour cherry producer countries. However, the stone seed fruit trees experience serious disease problems in recent years. Especially, sweet and sour cherry trees are heavily affected with dieback and sudden deaths occurred in short time. This study aims to investigate disease agents on the sweet and sour cherries with applying classical and molecular identification techniques. Tokat's cherry production areas have been searched to determine present infection statu and establish a basis for future studies. Hence, surveys were carried out on cherry orchards at Tokat Central, Pazar, Niksar Erbaa provinces. Collected plant samples from the surveys brought to our laboratory; fungi and bacteria were isolated on specific mediums and viruses and phytoplasmas were analysed using total genomic DNAs respectively. The fungal and bacterial pathogens were purified from the culture and they were used in pathogenicity tests. Molecular analyses within total genomic DNAs revealed that neither phytoplamas nor viruses are present our samples. Leucostoma sp and Alternaria sp were identified in conventional diagnostic and pathogenicity tests. Investigation of the disease agents will let us to control the important disease and establish a main step for future studies.

Keywords
Diseases, sweet and sour cherry trees, surveys, identification

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