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Vakum Ambalajlı Olarak Soğukta Muhafaza Edilen Dana, Kuzu ve Tavuk Etlerinin Bazı Fizikokimyasal ve Mikrobiyolojik Özellikleri
(Some Physicochemical and Microbiological Evolution of Vacuum Packaged Beef, Lamb and Chicken Meat during Refrigerated Storage )

Author : Ümran ÇİÇEK  Şeniz Karabıyıklı, Fatma Nur Kılınçer, Ahmet Talha Yıldırım, Hande Cevahiroğlu  
Type :
Printing Year : 2014
Number : 2014-1
Page : 54-62


Summary
Bu çalışmada vakum ambalajlanan tavuk (T), kuzu (K) ve dana (D) eti örneklerinin 4°C’de 7 günlük depolama süresince fizikokimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Et örneklerinde başlangıçta (0. gün) depolamanın, 1., 4. ve 7. günlerinde pH değeri, titrasyon asitliği (%laktik asit), su aktivitesi değeri (aw), sızıntı kaybı ve pişirme kaybı ölçümleri yapılmıştır. Et örneklerinin mikrobiyolojik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla aynı örnekleme periyodunda toplam mezofilik aerobik bakteri (TMAB) sayımı, Salmonella ve Escherichia coli O157 analizleri yapılmıştır. Tüm örneklerin sızıntı kaybı ve pişirme kaybı değerleri 7 günlük depolama süresince artış göstermiştir. En düşük pH değerine sahip D örneklerinin en yüksek sızıntı ve pişirme kaybı değerlerine, en yüksek pH değerine sahip T örneklerinin ise en düşük sızıntı ve pişirme kaybı değerlerine sahip olduğu gözlenmiştir. Mikrobiyolojik analizlerden elde edilen verilere göre başlangıç mikroorganizma yükünün D örneğinde diğerlerine göre daha düşük olduğu belirlenmiştir. Depolama süresi boyunca örneklerin TMAB sayısı önemli ölçüde artış göstermiş (p<0,05), 7. günün sonunda bu sayı 8,23 – 9,77 log-kob/g seviyelerine ulaşmıştır. İncelenen örneklerin tümü E. coli O157 açısından pozitif bulunmuş, buna karşın Salmonella sadece T ve D örneklerinden izole edilebilmiştir. Mikrobiyolojik analizlerden elde edilen verilere göre başlangıç mikroorganizma yükünün D örneğinde diğerlerine göre daha düşük olmasına rağmen tüm örneklerin kesim, hazırlama aşamalarındaki kontaminasyona bağlı olarak patojen mikroorganizma içerdiği sonucuna varılmıştır.

Turkish Keywords
Sızıntı kaybı, pişirme kaybı, patojen, vakum ambalajlama

Abstract
In this study, it was aimed to determine some physicochemical and microbiological properties of vacuum packaged chicken (T), lamb (K) and beef (D) meat samples which were stored at 4oC for 7 days. The pH value, titratable acidity (lactic acid %), water activity value (aw), dripping loss and cooking loss values of meat samples were evaluated at the beginning and on the 1st, 4th and 7th days of storage. In order to determine the microbiological properties of meat samples, enumeration of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB) and the analysis of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 were considered at the same sampling periods. Dripping loss and cooking loss values of all meat samples showed significant increases during the storage period for 7 days. It was seen that, D samples which had the lowest pH value showed the highest dripping loss and cooking loss values among the meat types while T samples which had the highest pH values showed the lowest dripping loss and cooking loss values. It was determined that D samples had the lower initial microorganism counts in comparison with the other meat samples just according to the results of microbiological analysis. TMAB numbers dramatically showed significant increases during storage for all samples (p<0.05), the numbers were reached to 8.23 - 9.77 log CFU/g at the end of 7th day. E. coli O157 was detected in all samples, while Salmonella was detected from T and D samples. According to the data obtained from microbiological analyses, the initial microflora of D lower than others, on the other hand, all meat samples contained pathogenic microorganisms as a result of contamination at slaughtering and processing stages.

Keywords
Dripping loss, cooking loss, pathogen, vacuum packaging

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