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Salamuralık asma yaprağı üretiminde fungusit kalıntı miktarı üzerine hasat zamanı ve salamura uygulamalarının etkisi
(The Effect Of Picking Period And Brining Applications On Fungicide Residue Levels In Brined Vine Leaves Production )

Author : Rüstem CANGİ  Yusuf YANAR, Adem YAĞCI, Neval TOPÇU, Seda SUCU, Yağmur DÜLGEROĞLU  
Type :
Printing Year : 2014
Number : 2014-2
Page : 23-30


Summary
Asmalardan yaprak toplandığı dönemde özellikle külleme, bağ uyuzu ve mildiyöye karşı kontakt veya sistemik fungusitler sıkça kullanmaktadır. Bu ise gıda olarak tüketilen asma yapraklarında bazen kalıntı sorunu yaşanmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, külleme ve mildiyöye karşı yaprak hasat döneminde 2 farklı fungusit uygulaması (folpet+triadimenol ve carbendazim+ metalaxyl + mancozeb) Narince üzüm çeşidine (V. vinifera) ait asmalarda denenmiştir. Asma yaprakları, etken maddelerin önerilen bekleme sürelerinin sonunda hasat edilmiştir. Hasat edilen yapraklarda kalıntı analizi yapılarak rezüdi miktarları belirlenmiştir. Kalıntı analizleri taze, soğuk ve sıcak salamura yapraklarda yapılmıştır. Salamura yaprak elde etmek için yaprak örnekleri % 8 oranında tuz (NaCl) ve % 0,25 laktik asit içeren suya yerleştirilmiş ve üç ay süre fermentasyona tabii tutulmuştur. Taze asma yapraklarında üç sistemik fungusitin (triadimenol, carbendazim, metalaxyl) kalıntı miktarı MRL (maksimum kalıntı düzeyi) değerinin üzerinde çıkmıştır. Taze ve salamura yaprak örneklerinde folpet kalıntısı saptanamamıştır. Salamura uygulamaları fungusit kalıntı miktarını azaltmış olup, salamura yapraklardaki carbendazim kalıntı miktarı da MRL değerinin üzerinde çıkmıştır. Sıcak su ile salamura yapılan yapraklardaki kalıntı miktarı % 27 ile % 91 arasında azaltmıştır. Bağlarda kullanılan fungusitlerde, üzüm için önerilen uygulama ve hasat arasında geçmesi gereken sürenin, asma yaprağı için geçerli olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Sonuçta, salamuralık asma yaprağı üretilen bağlarda sistemik fungusit kullanılmaması, kontakt etkili fungusit kullanırken ise dikkat edilmesi önerilmiştir.

Turkish Keywords
asma yaprağı, carbendazim, funfusit, folpet rezüdi, salamura

Abstract
Especially at the time then the leaves are harvested contact and systemic fungicides are applied frequently to protect the grapevine agaist downy mildew and powdery mildew. Intensive pesticide use in vineyard resulted in residue problem on brined vine leaves that are used as food. This study was aimed at development of a proper chemical control program to reduce the pesticide residue problem on vine (Vitis vinifera) leaves in vineyards during the growing period. In this study two fungicides application (folpet+triadimenol ve carbendazim+ metalaxyl + mancozeb) were applied alternately for both powdery mildew and downy mildew control in vine leaves harvest period in Narince(V. vinifera) grape cultivar. Vine leaves were harvested at end the half-lifes of the pesticides. A residue analysis of pesticides on harvested vine leaves was determined. Residue analyses made of fresh, cold water and hot water brine vine leaves. To make brining leaves, leaf samples were put in the water containing salt (NaCl) of 8 % and lactic acid 0,25 % and they were subjected to fermentation for 3 months.The 3 systemic fungicides (triadimenol, carbendazim, metalaxyl) residues detected on fresh leaves in applications were over MRL (maximum residue level). Folpet residue could not be dedected in fresh and brined vine leaves. Brining applications were decreased fungucide residue levels, but carbendazim residue was also over MRL. Hot brining method was decreased residue from 27,2 % to 91,0 %, according to fresh vine leaves. Fungusides recommended for grape, and the time that is required to pass between application and harvest it is proposed to vine leaves, is not valid for recommended for application and used fungucides, grape vineyards harvest and the time that must elapse between is not valid for the vine leaves. As a result, systemic fungicide should not be used in vineyards produced pickled vine leaves, It is proposed that better to use contact fungicides instead if systemic one and also you have to be careful using the effective contact fungicides.

Keywords
brined vine leaf, fungucide, carbendazim, folpet, residue

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