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Dana Etinin Bazı Fizikokimyasal ve Mikrobiyolojik Özellikleri Üzerine Farklı Ambalajlama Yöntemleri ve Depolama Süresinin Etkisi
(The Effects of Packaging Methodologies and Storage Period on Some Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Beef Meat )

Author : Ümran ÇİÇEK  Şeniz KARABIYIKLI, Duygu ÇABUK, Berna İYİEKMEKÇİ, Hoşgeldi KURBANDURDİYEV, Hande CEVAHİROĞLU  
Type :
Printing Year : 2013
Number : 2013-2
Page : 62-70


Summary
Bu çalışma ile +4 oC’de 7 gün süre ile depolanan açık tabak (K), streç film ile sarılı tabak (ST) ve vakum ambalajlanmış (VA) dana etlerinin bazı fizikokimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik özelliklerindeki değişimlerin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Fizikokimyasal özelliklerdeki değişimleri belirmek amacıyla depolamanın 0., 1., 4. ve 7. günlerinde alınan örneklerde pH, titrasyon asitliği (TA), renk (L*a*b*) ve su aktivitesi (aw) değerleri ölçülmüştür. Mikrobiyolojik özelliklerindeki değişimleri belirlemek amacıyla ise aynı örnekleme aşamalarında toplam aerobik mezofilik bakteri (TMAB) sayımı ve Salmonella ve Escherichia coli O157 analizleri yapılmıştır. Depolama süresince VA grubunun pH değerinde önemli bir artış gözlenmemesine karşın (p>0,05), ST ve K grubunun pH değerlerindeki artış istatistiki olarak önemli bulunmuştur (p<0,05). K grubunun TA değerinin depolama süresince artma eğilimi göstermesine karşın, ST grubunun TA değeri 4. günden itibaren düşmüştür (p<0,05). Kurumaya bağlı olarak K grubunun L*a*b* değerleri depolama süresince düşme eğilimi göstermiştir (p<0,05). Depolama başlangıcında yapılan mikrobiyolojik analizler sonucunda TMAB sayımları ortalama olarak 5,56 log-kob/g olarak belirlenirken, örneklerin %75’inin Salmonella pozitif, %50’sinin ise E. coli O157 pozitif sonuç verdiği tespit edilmiştir. Depolama sonunda TMAB sayımı VA grubu için ortalama 8,26 log-kob/g, ST grubu için ortalama 10,32 log-kob/g ve K grubu için ortalama 8,83 log-kob/g olarak tespit edilmiştir. ST grubu dışındaki tüm örneklerde depolama boyunca Salmonella tespit edilmiş olup, 24 saatlik depolama sonunda örneklerde E. coli O157’ye rastlanmamıştır. Mikrobiyolojik analizlerden elde edilen sonuçlar başlangıç florasında mevcut olan mikroorganizmaların depolama boyunca gelişerek sayısını artırdığını göstermiş olup, güvenli koşullarda depolamada başlangıç yükü kadar ambalajlama yönteminin de mikrobiyal üreme hızı üzerinde etkili olduğunu vurgulamaktadır. Et örneklerinin fizikokimyasal özellikleri üzerine ambalajlama yöntemlerinin etkileri kıyaslandığında, vakum paketleme yönteminin parça dana etinin marketlerde depolama ve satış sırasında kalite özelliklerini korumada daha etkili olduğu gözlenmiştir.

Turkish Keywords
Dana eti, vakum paketleme, renk, başlangıç mikroflorası, E. coli O157, Salmonella.

Abstract
In this study it was aimed to determine physicochemical and microbiological evolutions of non-packaged (K), cling film covered (ST) and vacuum packaged (VA) beef samples stored at 4oC during 7 days. In order to determine the physicochemical evolutions, pH, titratable acidity (TA), color measurements (L*a*b*) and water activity (aw) analyses were applied to the samples taken at the beginning and at the 1st, 4th and 7th days of the storage. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB) count and Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 detection tests were applied to the samples to detect the microbiological evolutions at the same sampling periods. Although, there is no significant increase in the pH values of the VA group during refrigeration (p>0.05), the increase in the pH values of the both ST and K groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). While the TA values of the K group were increased during storage, TA values of the ST group were decreased after the 4th day of the storage (p<0.05). As a result of dehydration L*a*b* values of the K group decreased during refrigeration. The microbiological analyses showed that the mean value of TMAB counts was 5.56 log CFU/g and 75% of the samples were Salmonella positive while 50% of them E. coli O157 positive at the beginning of the storage. At the end of the refrigeration TMAB count results for the VA, ST and K groups were 8.26 log CFU/g, 10.32 log CFU/g and 8.83 log CFU/g, respectively. All the beef samples were Salmonella positive until the end of storage except ST group and E. coli could not be detected after 24 hours storage in all beef samples. The results of the microbiological analyses indicated that the microorganisms of the initial microflora grew and the numbers are increased during storage and it was also impressed that the packaging method is important as much as the initial microflora on the microbiological grow. When we compare the effects of different packaging methodologies on the physicochemical properties of meat samples, it was seen that vacuum packaging was more effective on the preservation of quality parameters of beef meat cuts during storage and serving in the supermarkets.

Keywords
Beef meat, vacuum packaging, color, initial microflora, E. coli O157, Salmonella.

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