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Diskli Gübre Dağıtma Makinaları İçin Değişken Oranlı Gübre Kontrol Sistemi
(Variable Rate Fertilizer Control System for Centrifugal Fertilizer Spreaders )

Author : Bahattin AKDEMİR  Beytullah AYDOĞDU Murat Gökçe ÜNGÖR Murtaza ATİK Nezihi SAĞLAM  
Type :
Printing Year : 2018
Number : 2018-3
Page : 319-329


Summary
Bu araştırmanın amacı; çiftçinin uyguladığı alışılagelmiş homojen gübre uygulama yerine bitkinin ihtiyacına uygun belirlenmiş miktarları konuma göre dağıtan gübreleme yapan daha önce geliştirilmiş bir makine ile değişken düzeyli gübreleme yapmaktır. Araştırmada materyal olarak santrifüjlü gübre dağıtma makinesi, step motor, değişken düzeyli kontrol sistemi, GPS ve uygulama haritası programı kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada daha önce geliştirilen kontrol sistemi ve değişken düzeyli uygulama programı iyileştirilmiştir. Ayrıca laboratuar testleri için bilgisayar programı geliştirilmiştir. Yeni sistemin laboratuar denemeleri yapılmıştır. Testlerde çiftçiler tarafından ülkemizde tarla tarımında yaygın olarak kullanılan 15-15-15 (N-P-K), %46 Üre, 20-20-0 (N-P-K) ve %33 Amonyum Nitrat gübreleri için testler yapılmıştır. Sistem testler sırasında sorunsuz olarak çalışmıştır.

Turkish Keywords
diskli gübre dağıtma makinası, hassas tarım, değişken düzeyli gübreleme

Abstract
Application of fertilizer in agricultural production is one of the most important processes. Fertilizer is traditionally applied equal regardless of variability in the soil to the whole field. Soil samples are taken separately and mixed and analysed as a single sample and a single fertilization norm is recommended according to the result obtained. However, variability in the soil can be detected by sampling based on sensitive agriculture technologies and grid or soil groups. As a result, variable fertilization can be performed (Sındır and Tekin, 2002). Variable rate application (VRA) is application of information technologies such as global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system to farm management (Blackmore, 1999). It is very difficult to reconstitute the natural balance that is deteriorated as a result of environmental pollution caused by the unconscious use of mineral fertilizers. Taking necessary precautions is very important to prevent excessive chemical fertiliser usage (Bellitürk, 2005). The use of variable rate of nitrogen (N) in the field increases crop yield, reduces nitrate pollution of groundwater and farming costs (Kim et al., 2002). Nitrogen fertilizer in 50.5 kg versus 101 kg per hectare it is used twice in Thrace Turkey (Bayraktar, 1997). Blackmore et al. (1994) reported that fertilizer spreading machines with variable rate fertilizer control system can be successfully used in applying fertilizers as variable rate. Bongiovanni and DeBoer (2000) carried out field experiments for determining effects of the most applied nitrogen doses in corn production. In the first year the data showed that the nitrogen effect varied considerably according to the terrain and that variable rate fertilizer application technology was more profitable than nitrogen fertilizer application uniformly applied at 80 kg / ha. Godwin et al. (2002) reported that variable rate nitrogen application provided an economic gain of 22 pounds per hectare in 2000.

Keywords
centrifugal fertiliser spreader, precision farming, variable rate fertilisation

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