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Türkiye’de Yerel Buğday Popülasyonlarının Durumu ve Yerel Buğday Üreten Üreticilerin Üretim Kararlarında Etkili Olan Faktörler
(The General Situation of Wheat Landrace Populations and Factors Affecting Production Decisions of Wheat Landrace Producers in Turkey )

Author : Mustafa KAN  Murat KÜÇÜKÇONGAR Alexey MORGOUNOV Mesut KESER Fatih ÖZDEMİR Hafız MUMINJANOV Calvin QUALSET  
Type :
Printing Year : 2017
Number : 2017-2
Page : 54-64


Summary
Türkiye önemli gen merkezlerinden biri olup aynı zamanda buğdayın anavatanı konumundadır. Anadolu’da 10.000 yıllık bir tarihi olan buğdayın stratejik bir ürün olmasının yanı sıra kültürel bir mirastır. Bu kültürel miras ve genetik çeşitlilik teknolojideki ilerlemeler, girdi kullanımındaki artış, artan nüfus, daha fazla verim ve daha fazla ekonomik kazanç elde edinme isteği gibi nedenlerle yerini yeni modern buğday çeşitlerine bırakmış, yani genetik erozyona uğramıştır. Bu çalışma ile ekim alanları daralmış yerel buğday popülasyonlarını (YBP) üreten üreticilerin bu popülasyonları üretmeye devam etmelerinde etkili olan faktörler ortaya konulmaya çalışmıştır. Çalışma 2009-2014 yıllarında Gıda, Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı, CIMMYT ve ICARDA tarafından koordine edilen IWWIP (International Winter Wheat Improvement Program-Uluslararası Kışlık Buğday Geliştirme Programı) çatısı altında ve son 2 yılında FAO işbirliğinde Türkiye’de 65 ilde yürütülmüştür. “Gayeli Örnekleme Yöntemi” ile belirlenen yerleşim yerlerinde toplam 1873 yerel buğday üreticisi ile yüz yüze anket soru formları doldurulmuştur. Sonuç olarak, Türkiye’de yerel buğday popülasyonlarının hala dağlık ve tarımsal faaliyetlerin daha çok geleneksel sistemlerle yapıldığı alanlarda kendi ihtiyacını karşılamak amacı ile üretilmekte olduğu belirlenmiştir. Geleneksel tat ve lezzet ile hayvancılık faaliyetlerinin bu popülasyonun devam etmesindeki en önemli etkenler olduğu ortaya konulmuştur.

Turkish Keywords
Yerel buğday popülasyonları, üretim kararı, genetik kaynaklar, Türkiye

Abstract
Turkey is one of the important gene centers and at the same time is the homeland of wheat. Wheat is a strategic product of Anatolia with 10,000 years history, and it is also a cultural heritage. This cultural heritage and genetic diversity have left their place in new modern wheat varieties, genetic erosion, because of technological advances, increased use of inputs, increased population, greater efficiency and the desire to gain more economic gain. In this study, we tried to find out the factors that are effective in decision of the producers who are producing wheat landrace populations whose production area is narrowed to continue to produce these populations. The study was carried out between 2009-2014 under the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP) coordinated by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, CIMMYT and ICARDA and in cooperation with the FAO last two years in 65 provinces of Turkey. The questionnaires forms were completed with a total of 1873 wheat landrace producers by face-to-face in the settlements determined by "Purposeful Sampling Method". As a result, local wheat populations in Turkey are still produced with the aim of meeting their own needs in areas where mountainous and agricultural activities are mostly done with traditional systems. It has been revealed that traditional taste and flavor and animal husbandry activities are the most important factors in the continuation of these populations.

Keywords
Wheat landrace populations, producer decision, genetic sources, Turkey

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