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ICONA ve GIS Kullanılarak Erozyon Riskinin Değerlendirilmesi: Kahramanmaraş Örneği, Türkiye
(Soil Erosion Risk Assessment Using GIS and ICONA: A Case Study in Kahramanmaras, Turkey )

Author : Mahmut REİS  Hurem DUTAL Nursen ŞEN Gamze SAVACI  
Type :
Printing Year : 2017
Number : 2017-1
Page : 64-75


Summary
Türkiye, hatalı arazi kullanımından kaynaklanan sorunlarla birlikte olumsuz topoğrafik yapı, toprak ve iklim özellikleri nedeniyle dünyada en çok toprak erozyonuna uğrayan ülkelerden biridir. Toprak erozyonu oluşturduğu pek çok olumsuz sonuçların yanında özellikle barajların dolmasına ve ekonomik ömürlerini öngörülenden daha kısa sürede tamamlamalarına neden olmaktadır. Bu nedenle, araştırma Kahramanmaraş ilinin kuzeyinde yer alan ve Menzelet Barajına sediment taşıyan Haman Deresi yağış havzasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada uzaktan algılama ve coğrafi bilgi sitemleri teknikleri kullanılarak ICONA (Institute for the COnservation of the NAture) modeli ile erozyon risk analizi yapılmıştır. ICONA Erozyon Risk Haritası, Toprak Erodibilitesi ile Toprak Koruma Haritalarının birbirleriyle çakıştırılması sonucu elde edilmiştir. NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) değerleri Landsat 5 TM uydu görüntüsü kullanılarak elde edilmiştir. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlara göre, alanın % 53.67’sinin çok yüksek, % 38.1’inin yüksek, % 6.94’nün orta, % 1.17’sinin düşük ve % 0.12’sinin çok düşük erozyon riskine sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir.

Turkish Keywords
ICONA, arazi kullanımı, NDVI, toprak erozyonu, topoğrafya

Abstract
Turkey is one of the countries that have highest rate of soil erosion due to negative topographic structure, soil and climate characteristics along with the problems caused by improper land use practices. Besides other negative effects, soil erosion is the source of sediment that fills reservoirs and thus shortens economic life of dams. Therefore, this study has been carried out on Haman river basin which deposits sediments into Menzelet Dam Lake located north of Kahramanmaras. In this study, ICONA (Institute for the COnservation of the NAture) model has been used to assess soil erosion risk using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques. ICONA erosion risk map has been derived by overlaying soil erodibility and soil conservation maps. NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) values were generated from Landsat 5 TM satellite imagery. According to the results, it was determined that 53.67 % of the study area has very high risk, 38.1 % of the area has high risk, 6.94 % of the area has medium risk, 1.17 % of the area has low risk, and 0.12 % of the area has very low risk of soil erosion.

Keywords
ICONA, land use, NDVI, soil erosion, topography

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