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Tokat İklim Koşullarında Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary‘un Sclerotium Canlılığı Üzerine Solarizasyonun Etkisi
(Effects of Soil Solarization on Sclerotia Viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary Under Tokat Climatical Conditions )

Author : Yusuf YANAR    
Type :
Printing Year : 2005
Number : 2005-1
Page : 15-19


Summary
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) DeBary kültür bitkilerinde beyaz çürüklük, gövde ve meyve çürüklüğü olarak adlandırılan hastalıklara neden olan önemli bir fungal patojendir. Tokat ilinde de özellikle örtüaltı hıyar yetiştiriciliğinde hastalık sorun olmaya başlamıştır. Bu etmenin kimyasal kontrolünün zor olması nedeniyle Temmuz ve Ağustos ayları arasında altı hafta yapılacak solarizasyon uygulamasının S. sclerotiorum’un kontrolünde kullanılabilirliği araştırılmıştır. Muameleler kontrol, solarizasyon, tavuk gübresi ve tavuk gübresi + solarizasyon şeklinde yapılmıştır. Bu uygulamaların dört farklı toprak derinliğinde Sclerotinia sclerotiorum’un sklerotiumlarının canlılıkları üzerine etkileri belirlenmiştir. Solarizasyon yapılan parsellerdeki ortalama sıcaklıklar 0, 2, 5 ve 10 cm de sırasıyla 45.73, 44.80, 40.53 ve 36.38 0C olmuştur. Bu da solarizasyon uygulanmayan parsellere göre yaklaşık 10 0C bir sıcaklık artışı oluşturmuştur. Çalışma sonucunda solarizasyon uygulanan parsellerden elde edilen sklerotiumların canlılık oranı ile kontrol parsellerinden elde edilen sklerotiumların canlılık oranları arasında önemli derecede farklılık gözlenmiştir (P=0.05). Sklerotium canlılık oranı kontrol parsellerinde %90-100 arasında değişirken solarizasyon uygulanan parsellerdeki sclerotiumların hepsi canlılığını kaybetmiştir. Solarizasyon uygulanan parsellerle Tavuk gübresi+solarizasyon uygulanan parseller arasında önemli bir fark gözlenmemiştir. Bu bulgular doğrultusunda Tokat’ta sera koşullarında solarizasyonun S.sclerotiorum’un kontrolünde etkin bir mücadele yöntemi olduğu ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

Turkish Keywords
Toprak solarizasyonu, Beyaz küf, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Tokat (Turkey

Abstract
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary, the causal agent of white mold, stem and fruit rot diseases of different plant species has caused serious damage to cucumber grown in greenhouses in Tokat. Control of this disease with chemical is difficult. The possibility of controlling S. sclerotiorum by using soil solarization during the months of July and August was examined. The soil was covered with transparent polyethylene sheets for six weeks. Treatments included un treated control,solarization, poultry manure and solarization incombination with poultry manure. Effects of these treatments on sclerotial viability of S. sclerotiorum were evaluated at four different soil depth (0, 2, 5, 10 cm). Mean soil temperatures in solarized plots recorded at 0, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were 45.73, 44.80, 40.53 and 36.38 0C respectively. These temperatures were about 10 0C higher than temperatures recorded in non-solarized plots. Viabitiy of sclerotia recovered from solarized plots was significantly different than the sclerotia recovered from non-solarized plots (P=0.05). Mean sclerotial viability changed between 90-100% in non-solarized plots while all the sclerotia recovered from solarized plots were lost their viability. There was not any significan difference between solarization and solarization+poultry manure treatments. From these results it was concluded that solarization can be an effective control method of S. sclerotiorum under greenhouse conditions in Tokat.

Keywords
Soil solarization, White mold, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Tokat (Turkey)

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