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Ardışık İki Topografya’da Yer Alan Toprakların Oluşumları ve Sınıflamaları
(Pedogenesis and Classification of Soils Located on Two Consecutive Topographies )

Author : Hikmet GÜNAL    
Type :
Printing Year : 2006
Number : 2006-2
Page : 59-68


Summary
Bu çalışmada, bir hat boyunca ardışık iki farklı topografya üzerinde bulunan, Yeşilırmak nehrinin getirdiği aluviyal ve eğimli arazilerden yerçekimin etkisi ile taşınmış koluviyal materyaller üzerinde oluşmuş toprakların gelişimleri incelenmiştir. Tokat il merkezi ve Turhal ilçesi arasında yer alan araştırma alanında üç farklı fizyoğrafik ünite üzerinde beş toprak profili tanımlanmış, genetik horizonları arazide belirlendikten sonra bozulmuş toprak örnekleri alınarak çeşitli fiziksel ve kimyasal analizleri yapılmıştır. Yatay derecelenmenin etkisi ile aluviyal arazideki toprakların tekstürü nehirden uzaklaştıkça incelmiştir. Kireç taşı üzerinde gelişmiş toprakların ve fiziksel ayrışmaya uğramış kaya parçacıklarının taşınması sonucu oluşan koluviyal arazilerdeki topraklar tipik olarak kırmızı Akdeniz topraklarının özelliklerine benzemektedirler. Bu topraklardaki en önemli toprak oluş işlemleri, kalsiyum karbonatın yüzey horizonlarından yıkanıp alt katmanlarda benekler şeklinde birikmesi ve hematit mineralinin baskın bir şekilde oluşması ve minerallerin etrafını kaplayarak toprağa tipik kırmızı rengi vermesidir. Yeşilırmak Nehrinin hemen yakınındaki yüzey topraklarında kil içeriği % 13 iken 1300 m uzağında bulunan arazilerde kil içeriği % 57.5’a çıkmıştır. Aluviyal topraklar Entisol ve Mollisol ordoları içersinde sınıflandırılırken, koluviyal ana materyaller üzerinde gelişen topraklar Inceptisol ordosunda sınıflandırılmıştır.

Turkish Keywords
Aluviyal, koluviyal, nehir sırtı, nehir terası, dağ ayağı

Abstract
In this study, the formation of soils located on two different consecutive topographies was evaluated. The soils studied were formed over alluvium brought by Yeşilırmak River and colluviums transported by gravity from adjacent sloppy areas. Five soil profiles on three different physiographic units were opened in the study area located between Tokat city center and Turhal city, and genetic horizons were described and bulk samples were collected for physical and chemical analyses. Soil texture was finer as being further from the river bed due to the effect of lateral deposition of flood sediments. Colluvial soils were similar to Red Mediterranean soils of Mediterranean Region. Major soil forming processes in studied soils are leaching of calcium carbonate from upper part of soil profile and accumulation in the lower horizons as mottles, and the dominant formation of hematite mineral. Hematite minerals cover the other minerals and gives typical red color to the soils. Surface soils of Yeşilırmak series contain 13% clay, however, clay contents increases to 57.5% in the soils located 1300 m further to the river. Alluvial soils were classified within Entisol and Mollisol, and colluvial soils were classified within Inceptisol order.

Keywords
Aluvium, colluvium, river band, river terraces, piedmont

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