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Karasal Ekosistemde Karbon Yönetimi ve Önemi
(Carbon Management and Importance in Terrestrial Ecosystem )

Author : Rasim KOÇYİĞİT    
Type :
Printing Year : 2008
Number : 2008-1
Page : 81-85


Summary
Son yıllarda yapılan çalışmalar, toprak karbon stoklarındaki hızlı oksidasyonun çevrede özellikle atmosferin kimyasında önemli değişmelere neden olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Atmosferdeki sera gazlarından özellikle CO2’nin miktarındaki artış, iklimi, bitkilerin fizyolojisini, toprağın mikrobiyal aktivitesini ve organik maddenin oluşumunu ve parçalanmasını önemli ölçüde etkiler. Topraklar atmosferdeki karbon için bir depo olabileceği gibi kaynak da olabilir. Bir ekosistemde toprakta depolanan veya topraktan atmosfere salınan C miktarı, net ekosistem üretimi ile ekosistemden atmosfere salınan toplam hetetrofik solunuma bağlıdır. Arazi kullanımına bağlı olarak yoğun toprak işleme, topraktaki organik C’un hızla oksidasyonuna neden olarak toprakların atmosferdeki CO2 için bir kaynak olmasına neden olur. Toprakların yıllardır yapılan geleneksel toprak işleme sonucu başlangıç karbonunun yaklaşık % 50’si kaybolmuş bulunmaktadır. Minimum sürüm ve sürümsüz tarım teknikleri organik karbonun oksidasyonunu azaltarak toprağın net C kazanımına neden olur. Böylece çeşitli yollarla atmosfere salınmış olan C’nin yeniden toprakta depolanması sağlanabilir. Yüksek organik karbon aynı zamanda toprağın kalitesi ve verimliğini de artırır. Böylece topraklar atmosferdeki karbonun depolanması için iyi bir kaynak görevi görür.

Turkish Keywords
Karbon depolanması, arazi kullanımı, toprak organik maddesi, tarımsal kullanım, mera ve orman

Abstract
Recently, researchers indicated great changes in the chemistry of atmosphere due to faster oxidation of soil organic carbon. The increases of greenhouse gasses especially CO2 concentration can affect climate, plant physiology, microbial activity, soil organic matter, and decomposition. Soil can be a store or source for atmospheric CO2. The amount of soil organic carbon stored in the soil or release to the atmosphere depends on net ecosystem productivity and heterotrophic respiration. Soil management systems with intensive cultivation may stimulate oxidation of old organic matter, and create the soil a source of atmospheric CO2. Similarly, almost lost 50% of organic carbon was lost due to conventional tillage systems and cultivation. Minimum tillage and no-till practices reduce oxidation of soil organic carbon and result net C gain. Thus, atmospheric CO2 can be stored in soils using these management systems. The greater level of soil organic carbon can also increase soil quality and fertility. This indicates our soils can be a greater potential to store atmospheric CO2.

Keywords
Carbon storage, land management, soil organic matter, agricultural use, pasture and forest

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