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Toprak Koşullarına Bağlı Olarak Tarla Kapasitesi Dinamiği
( Field Capacity Dynamics Affected by Soil Properties )

Author : Gülay KARAHAN   Sabit ERŞAHİN Hasan Sabri ÖZTÜRK  
Type :
Printing Year : 2014
Number : 2014-1
Page : 1-11


Summary
Tarla kapasitesi yaygın olarak kullanılan fakat halen tartışılan bir toprak hidrolik özelliğidir. Geleneksel olarak tarla kapasitesi; doygun bir topraktaki su serbest drenajla uzaklaştıktan ve suyun yerçekimi yönünde dikey hareketi durduktan sonra toprakta tutulan su miktarı veya toprak su içeriği olarak tanımlanır. Bu tanıma göre, gerçekte toprakta tarla kapasitesine asla ulaşılamaz. Bunun nedeni, toprakta büyük gözeneklerde zayıf tutulan suyun hızla uzaklaşmasından sonra, geriye kalan suyun yavaşta olsa toprakta hareket etmesidir. Toprakta yerçekimi yönündeki su hareketinin ihmal edilebilmesi için toprak suyu hareket hızının ne olduğuna dair evrensel anlamda kabul görmüş bir eşik değeri henüz belirlenmemiştir. Kaldı ki teorik olarak tarla kapasitesinde killi bir topraktaki su hareketinin kumlu bir topraktakine göre çok daha yüksek olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu bağlamda, tarla kapasitesi için belirli bir toprak suyu hareket hızının eşik değer olarak kabul edilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu eşik değerin farklı toprak tekstürlerinde karşılık bulduğu toprak suyu basıncı tarla kapasitesi için esas alınabilir. Bu literatür çalışmasında, tarla kapasitesi üzerine daha önce yapılmış tanımlar ve yeni kavramlar tartışılarak, toprak tekstürü başta olmak üzere toprak özellikleri ile tarla kapasitesi arasındaki ilişkiler irdelenmiştir.

Turkish Keywords
Toprak bünyesi, drenaj süresi, kapilar kuvvetler, matrik potansiyel, tarla kapasitesi

Abstract
Field capacity is a soil hydraulic property, which is used widely but not identified in full. Traditionally, field capacity is the amount of soil moisture or water content held in soil after excess water is drained away and downward movement stops. In reality, a true field capacity is never reached since soil water continuously drains after readily drained soil water leaves the soil. A universally accepted threshold value for soil water flow rate to be negligible has not been determined yet. Soil water flow rate of a clay soil at field capacity is far greater than that of a coarse textured soil. In this regard, a universally applicable threshold value of soil water flow rate should be set for sand, loamy and clay soils. This value may be used as a reference for field capacity for soil texture classes, and corresponding soil water pressure may be used as “soil water pressure” for field capacity of related soil texture classes. In this literature review, the previous assumptions on field capacity and new definitions were evaluated and application of field capacity was discussed.

Keywords
Soil texture, drainage time, matrix potential, capillary forces, field capacity

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