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Farklı Kurutma Yöntemlerinin Reyhan (Ocimum Basilicum) Bitkisinin Kuruma Süresine Ve Kalitesine Etkisi
(The Effects of Various Drying Methods On The Drying Time And Quality Of Basil (Ocimum Basilicum) )

Author : Hakan POLATCI  Sefa Tarhan  
Type :
Printing Year : 2009
Number : 2009-1
Page : 61-70


Summary
Kurutma, yaş tarımsal ürünlerin hasat sonrası işlemlerinden birisi olup çok farklı biçimlerde uygulanmaktadır. Tıbbi ve aromatik bitkiler için uygun kurutma yönteminin seçimi başarılı kurutma için en önemli aşamadır. Bu çalışmada aromatik bitkilerden olan reyhan (Ocimum basilicum), farklı kurutma yöntemleriyle ve farklı kurutma şartlarında kurutulmuştur. Araştırma kapsamında beş farklı kurutma yöntemi (doğrudan değmeli kurutucuda kurutma, etüvde kurutma, gölgede kurutma, güneşte kurutma ve mikrodalga fırında kurutma) kullanılmıştır. Kurutma denemeleri üç tekerrürlü yapılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında reyhanın kuruma özellikleri, renk değerleri ve uçucu yağ oranı belirlenmiştir. Doğrudan değmeli kurutucuda kurutma işlemi 63-66 saat sürmüştür. Doğrudan değmeli kurutucuda iki farklı karıştırma sıklığında kurutma yapılmış ve karıştırmanın kuruma zamanına ve kuru ürün kalitesine önemli bir etkisinin olmadığı görülmüştür. Etüvde kurutma işlemi iki farklı sıcaklıkta (45ºC, 55ºC ) yapılmış ve kurutma işlemi sırası ile 50 ve 34 saat sürmüştür. Mikrodalgada kurutma iki farklı güç seviyesinde yapılmıştır. Mikrodalgada kurutma işlemi diğer yöntemlerine kıyasla çok hızlı olmuş ve 9-22 dakika içerisinde tamamlanmıştır. Ancak mikrodalgada kurutmanın kalite özellikleri bakımından reyhan bitkisi kurutmak için uygun olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Gölgede ve güneşte kurutma yöntemlerinin aromatik bitkilerin kalite özelliklerini bozduğu görülmüştür. Araştırma sonuçları, 45-55 ºC sıcaklıktaki havayla kurutmanın reyhanbitkisi için uygun olduğu görülmüştür.

Turkish Keywords
Kurutma, tıbbi ve aromatik bitkiler, kuruma kinetiği, uçucu yağ analizi, renk analizi, reyhan

Abstract
Drying is one of the postharvesting operation used to process various fresh agricultural products. There are several drying methods used to dry agricultural materials today. The selection of an appropriate drying method is the key step for successful drying. Basil (Ocimum basilicum), one of the aromatic plants, was dehydrated using five different drying methods (contact drying, oven drying, shaded-open atmosphere drying, sun drying and microwave drying). All drying trials were performed in three replicates. The drying performance (drying time, final moisture content), drying kinetics, color analysis, essential oil analysis, were performed for all drying methods. Contact drying continued for 63-66 hours without getting affected by mixing frequency. Oven drying continued from 34 hours to 50 hours depending on drying temperature. Microwave drying was the fastest drying but reduced the quality of dried basil. Shaded-open atmosphere drying and sun drying are not appropriate at industrial level since they were slow and affected the quality of dried basil adversely. Research results show that the drying basil with air heated up to 45-55 ºC is appropriate.

Keywords
Drying, aromatic plants, drying kinetics, essential oil analysis, color analysis, basil

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