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Orta Anadolu Koşullarında Aşılı ve Aşısız Domateste (Lycopersicon esculentum) Damla ve Karık Yöntemlerinin Toprakta Tuz Dağılımı, Meyve Verimi ve Su Kullanım Etkinliği Üzerine Etkileri
(Salinity Distrubution, Water Use Efficiency and Yield Response of Grafted and Ungrafted Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Under Furrow and Drip Irrigation with Moderately Saline Water in Central Anatolian Condition )

Author : G. Duygu SEMİZ  Engin Yurtseven  
Type :
Printing Year : 2010
Number : 2010-2
Page : 101-111


Summary
Ankara Üniversitesi, Ayaş Bahçe Bitkileri Araştırma İstasyonunda, 2005 ve 2006 yıllarında yürütülen bu çalışmada, aşılı ve aşısız fide kullanılan domates, damla ve karık yöntemleri ile sulanmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı, aşılı ve aşısız domateste sulama yöntemlerinin, verim, su kullanım etkinliği ve toprak profilindeki tuzluluk dağılımına etkilerinin belirlenmesidir. Bu amaçla aşılı ve aşısız domates bitkileri damla ve karık yöntemleri ile sulanmıştır. Sulama suyunun elektriksel iletkenliği 1.9 dS/m ve SAR değeri 1.0’dan küçüktür. Ortalama meyve verimi, damla-aşılı, damla-aşısız, karık-aşılı ve karık-aşısız için sırasıyla, 4671, 4391, 4109 ve 3457 g/bitki olarak belirlenmiştir. Sırasıyla, 2005 ve 2006 yıllarında, toplam mevsimlik bitki su tüketimi, damla yönteminde 810. ve 771.5 mm, karık yönteminde ise 957.0 ve 928.2 mm olarak bulunmuştur. Toplam sulama suyu ihtiyacı (uygulanan sulama suyu miktarı) 2005 ve 2006 yılları için sırayla, damla yönteminde, 731 ve 714 mm, karık yönteminde, 881 ve 871 mm olarak bulunmuştur. Su kullanım etkinliği, damla-aşılı, damla-aşısız, karık-aşılı ve karık-aşısız için sırasıyla, 12.92, 12.14, 9.38 ve 7.90 kg/m3 olarak ölçülmüştür. Her ay alınan toprak örnekleri sonucunda elde edilen profil tuzluluk dağılımları, damla yönteminde damlatıcılardan ıslak çepere doğru, karık yönteminde ise karıklardan bitki köklerine doğru artış gösterdiği belirlenmiştir.

Turkish Keywords
Domates, Lycopersicon esculentu), Aşılı Sebze, Tuzluluk, Damla Sulama, Karık Sulama

Abstract
A field study with tomato was carried out at Ankara University, Horticultural Research Station in two consecutive years. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of grafting and irrigation methods on yield and water use of tomato and salinity distribution within the soil. Grafted and ungrafted tomato cultivars were grown using drip and furrow irrigation methods. Salinity of irrigation water (electrical conductivity) was 1.9 dS/m and the SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was below 1.0. The mean fruit yields were 4671, 4391, 4109 and 3457 g/plant for drip-grafted, drip-ungrafted, furrow-grafted and furrow-ungrafted treatments, respectively. Seasonal total evapotransprations were 810.0 and 771.5 mm under drip irrigation, 957.0 and 928.2 mm under furrow irrigation in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Total irrigation water requirement (applied water) were 731 and 714 mm under drip irrigation, 881 and 871 mm under furrow irrigation in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Water use efficiencies (WUE) were 12.92, 12.14, 9.38 and 7.90 kg/m3 for drip-grafted, drip-ungrafted, furrow-grafted and furrow-ungrafted treatments, respectively. Monthly soil samplings indicated that the salinity distribution decreased towards the root zone (wetted area beneath the emitters and plants) with drip irrigation and increased towards the root zone (furrow ridges and plants) with furrow irrigation.

Keywords
Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, Grafting Vegetable, Salinity, Drip Irrigation, Furrow Irrigation.

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