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Bitki artığı yakmanın yarı kurak tarımsal üretim sistemlerinde toprak fiziksel ve hidrolojik özelliklerine etkileri
(Effects of crop residue burning on soil physical and hydrological properties in semi-arid agricultural production systems )

Author : Rifat AKIŞ    
Type :
Printing Year : 2016
Number : 2016-3
Page : 223-235


Summary
Tarım ekosistemlerinde etkin bir toprak ve su yönetim planı geliştirmek için buğday saplarının yakılmasının toprak fiziksel ve hidrolojik özelliklerine etkisi araştırılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı tam-yakılmış, ortalama-yakılmış ve yakılmamış toprak şartlarında toprak fiziksel ve hidrolojik özelliklerinin durumunu karşılaştırmaktır. Yakmanın devam eden etkileri 3-ha alanda her iki yanmış ve yanmamış şartlarda 2-yıl çalışılmıştır. Sonuçlar göstermektedir ki: Suya doygunluk iletkenlik değerleri azalan sıralamayla, tam-yanmış (0.81), orta-derecede-yanmış (0.36) ve yanmamış (0.23 cm h-1) önemli derecede artmıştır (P=0.000). Yakma şiddeti gözenek boşluk hacmini en fazla tam-yanmış ve en az da orta-derecede-yanmış muamelelerde azaltmıştır (P=0.000). Yanmamış muameleler sırsıyla tam-yanmış ve orta-derecede-yanmış muamelelere kıyasla %11,5 ve %9,7 daha fazla gözenek hacmi içermiştir. Bitki artıklarının yakımı gözenek büyüklük dağılımlılarını muamelelerin üç seviyesi arasında önemli derecede değiştirmiştir (P=0.045). Tam-yanmış muameleler sırasıyla yanmamış (0.89) ve orta-derecede-yanmış (0.79 cm-1) muamelelerden önemli derecede yüksek Ksat farkları göstermiştir (P=0.000). Bitki artıklarının yakılması depo gözenek hacimlerini %37,3 (yanmamış) den %25,8 (tam-yanmış) değerine önemli derecede azaltırken, ölü gözenek hacmi %8.07 den %13,5 ‘e (tam-yanmış) ve %12,7’ ye (orta-derecede-yanmış) önemli derecede düşürmüştür. Bitki artıklarını toprakta tutan toprak yönetim uygulamaların havzada hayata geçirilmesine ihtiyaç vardır.

Turkish Keywords
Amik Ovası, anız yakma, hidrolojik özellikler, ölü gözenek, yanmış toprak

Abstract
The effect of wheat-stubble burning on soil physical and hydrological properties is under scrutiny to develop a sound soil and water management planning in agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare completely-burned, moderately-burned, and unburned soil conditions for responses of soil physical and hydrological properties. The persistence of fire-induced impacts were studied in 3 hectare land for both burned and unburned conditions for two years. Results showed that saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly increased in descending order 0.81, 0.36, and 0.23 cm h-1 for burned, moderately burned, and unburned plots (P=0.000). Fire intensity significantly reduced the pore space volume, the highest for burned and the least for the moderately-burning treatments (P<0.001). Unburned treatments had 11.5 and 9.7 % more pore spaces than completely-burned and moderately-burned plots, respectively. Residue burning significantly changed pore size distributions between three levels of treatments (P<0.045). Completely burned treatments registered significantly higher Ksat (P=0.000) differences 0.89 and 0.79 cmh-1, respectively from unburned and moderately burned treatments. Residue burning significantly decreased storage pores from 37.3% (unburned) to 25.8% (burned), while significantly increasing residual pores from 8.07% to 13.5 % (burned) and 12.7% (moderately burned). To conclude, residue-retaining soil management practices need implemented in the Plain.

Keywords
Amik Plain, burned soil, dead pore, hydraulic properties, residue burning

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