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Farklı Terbiye Sistemlerinin M9 Anacına Aşılı ‘Granny Smith’ Elma Çeşidinde (Malus domestica Borkh.) Ağaç Gelişimi, Verim ve Meyve Kalitesi Üzerine Etkileri
(The Effects of Different Training Systems on Tree Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality in ‘Granny Smith’ Apple Cultivar on M9 Rootstock )

Author : Emine KÜÇÜKER  Yakup ÖZKAN Kenan YILDIZ  
Type :
Printing Year : 2011
Number : 2011-1
Page : 13-19


Summary
Bu çalışma 2008-2010 yılları içerisinde, Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Uygulama ve Araştırma Bahçesi’nde bulunan M9 anacına aşılı ‘Granny Smith’ elma çeşidinde yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada 2007 yılı Kasım ayında dikilen fidanlara Slender Spindle, Hytec ve Vertical Axis terbiye sistemleri uygulanmıştır. Tel-herek kombinasyonu üzerinde geliştirilen ağaçlarda; meyve dalı sayısı (adet/ağaç), anaç çapı (mm), gövde çapı (mm), anaç ve çeşitte gövde kesit alanları (mm2), taç hacmi (m3), ağaç başına (kg/ağaç) ve dekara (kg/dekar) verim, verim etkinliği (kg/cm2), ortalama meyve ağırlığı (g), pH, meyve eti sertliği (kg), SÇKM (%), titre edilebilir asitlik (%) gibi vejetatif ve generatif gelişim kriterlerine ait gözlem ve ölçümler yapılmıştır. Üçüncü ürün yılında (2010), en yüksek değerler dikkate alındığında Hytec (3x1.5) terbiye sisteminde toplam meyve dalı sayısı 66.0 adet/ağaç, gövde kesit alanı 1158.8 mm², taç hacmi 1.58 m3, ağaç başına verim 8.21 kg, verim etkinliği 0.71 kg/cm², Slender Spindle (3x0.7) sisteminde dekara verim 2485.7 kg/da olarak tespit edilirken terbiye sistemlerinin meyve özelliklerine etkisi önemli bulunmamıştır.

Turkish Keywords
Elma, M9, terbiye sistemleri, ağaç gelişimi, verim ve meyve kalitesi

Abstract
This study was carried out with ‘Granny Smith’ apple cultivar grafted on M9 apple rootstock in Horticultural Deparment of Agricultural Faculty of Gaziosmanpaşa University during 2008-2010. In the study, Slender Spindle, Hytec, Vertical Axis training systems were applied on the trees were planted in 2007 October. The vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality performances such as generative shoot number (number/tree), rootstock thickness-diameter (mm), trunk thickness-diameter (mm), trunk cross sectionel area (mm²), canopy volume (m³), yield per tree (kg/tree), yield per decree (kg/decree), the yield efficiency (kg/cm²), averege fruit weight (g), fruit colour values, pH, fruit firmness (kg), SÇKM, total soluble solid (%) of the trees constituted on wire-stake combination system were analysed during three years. In 3rd yield year, the highest values for some plant and fruit characteristics; In Hytec (3x1.5) training system 66.0 number/tree total generative shoot number, 1158.8 mm² for trunk cross sectional area, 1.58 m3 for canopy volume, 8.21 kg for yield per tree, 0.71 kg/cm² for yield efficiency, In Slender Spindle (3x0.7) training system 2485.7 kg for yield per decree. The fruit quality parameters were not also affected by training systems.

Keywords
Apple, M9, training systems, growth, yield and fruit quality

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