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Alternatif Toprak İşleme Uygulamalarının Rüzgar Erozyonuna Etkisi
(The Effect on Wind Erosion of Alternative Soil Tillage Applications )

Author : Tamer MARAKOĞLU  Kazım ÇARMAN Kazım GÜR  
Type :
Printing Year : 2016
Number : 2016-3
Page : 69-79


Summary
Erozyon, ülkemizde yarı kurak ve kurak bölgelerde önemli bir çevre problemidir. Günümüzde, azaltılmış toprak işlem uygulamaları rüzgar erozyonunun azaltılmasında önemli rol oynamaktadır. Bu çalışmada 5 farklı toprak işleme uygulamasının rüzgar erozyonu üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. Denemeler rüzgar tünelinde yürütülmüştür. Çalışma 4 farklı rüzgâr hızında (4, 7, 10 ve 13 ms-1) yapılmıştır. Düşük rüzgâr hızlarında (4 ve 7 ms-1) sediment tutumu sağlanamamıştır. Ayrıca toprak işleme sonrası deneme parsellerindeki anız miktarı ve yüzey örtme oranları, yüzey düzgünsüzlüğü değerleri, toprağın ağırlıklı ortalama çapı ve stabilite indeksi değerleri belirlenmiştir. Toprak yüzeyindeki anız miktarı 42.67 - 128 gm-2, anız örtme oranı % 1.27 - 19.32, yüzey düzgünsüzlüğü % 4.56 - 24.23, ağırlıklı ortalama çapı 6.53 - 13.57 mm ve stabilite indeksi değerleri ise 2.24 - 3.41 arasında değişmiştir. 13 ms-1rüzgar hızında erozyon değerleri farklı toprak işleme uygulamalarına bağlı olarak 72-1365 gm-2h-1 arasında değişmiştir. Ortaya çıkan erozyon miktarı ile anızın yüzeyi örtme oranı, toprağın ağırlıklı ortalama çapı ve stabilite indeksi arasındaki ilişkinin istatistiki açıdan önemli olduğu ve ilişkinin regresyon katsayısının ise sırasıyla R2=0.93, R2=0.95 ve R2=0.97 olarak bulunmuştur.

Turkish Keywords
Rüzgâr erozyonu, toprağın ağırlıklı ortalama çapı, stabilite indeksi, anız.

Abstract
Wind erosion is an important environmental problem in our country, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Today, reduced tillage practices are often considered as effective in reducing erosion. In this study, the effects on the wind erosion of 5 different soil tillage applications were examined. Trials were conducted in a wind tunnel. The studies were done at 4 different wind speeds (4, 7, 10 and 13 ms-1). At low wind speeds (4 and 7 ms-1) could not be achieved sediment attitude. After tillage, stubble amount and cover ratio, surface roughness, mean weighted diameter, stability index values were measured as well and varied from 42.67 to 128 gm-2 and 1.27 to 19.32 %, 4.56 to 24.23 %, 6.53 to 13.57 mm and 2.24 to 3.41, respectively. At 13 ms-1, sediment transport rates varied from 72 to 1365 gm-2h-1 as depending on different soil tillage. The results showed that the relationships between erosion amount and stubble cover ratio, mean weighted diameter and stability index were found significantly and regression coefficient of relation were R2=0.93, R2=0.95 and R2=0.97 respectively.

Keywords
Wind erosion, soil weight mean diameter, stability index, stubble

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