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Tarımsal Verimlilik Göstergeleriyle Avrupa Birliği-Türkiye Tarımı
(EU-Turkey Agriculture with Agricultural Efficiency Indicators )

Author : Arif SEMERCİ    
Type :
Printing Year : 2016
Number : 2016-3
Page : 203-213


Summary
Avrupa Birliği dünyanın en önemli medeniyet projelerinden biridir. Türkiye bu projenin içinde yer alabilmek için yaklaşık 55 yıldır çaba göstermektedir. Birlik içinde tarım politikalarının uygulanmasına yönelik toplam maliyet Avrupa Birliği bütçesinin yarıya yakın kısmının tarım sektörüne ayrılmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu bağlamda Birlik son yıllarda tarımsal üretimin devamlılığına, sürdürülebilirliğine ve çevreyle uyumlu olmasına büyük özen göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada; Avrupa Birliği, Almanya, Fransa’da tarımsal üretim değerinde önemli bir yer tutan buğday, dane mısır, şeker pancarı ve domates ile inek başına elde edilen süt ve kesilen hayvan başına karkas ette 1973-2012 yılları arasında meydana gelen verimlilik değişimler incelenmiştir. Çalışmada, 40 yıllık dönemde Türkiye’nin buğdayda %124,2, dane mısırda %314,4, süt veriminde %130,1 ve karkas et ağırlığında %388,7 oranında verim değerlerinde artış sağladığı ve bu oranların da AB, Almanya ve Fransa’ya ait oranların üzerinde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Belirtilen dönemde sağlanan verimlilik artışlarına rağmen, sadece dane mısır üretiminde Türkiye’nin verim değeri AB ortalamasının üzerinde olmuştur. Çalışma sonucunda; AB’nde uygulanan tarım politikalarının tarımsal üretimde verimliliği önemli ölçüde artırmasına rağmen, Türkiye’de tarım sektörüne verilen desteklerin Tarım Kanununda belirtilen oranın ancak yarısı kadar olması nedeniyle, ülkenin tarım ürünleri verimlilik düzeylerinin AB ülkelerine oranla oldukça düşük düzeylerde kaldığını ortaya koymuştur.

Turkish Keywords
Avrupa Birliği, Tarımsal Üretim, Türkiye, Verimlilik.

Abstract
European Union is one of the most important civilization projects. Turkey has been making effort for 55 years to participate in this project. Agricultural sector almost takes half of the EU budget to carry out agricultural policies. In this regard, union takes great care of agricultural production continuity, sustainability and environment-friendly applications. In this study, wheat, corn, sugar beet and tomato which have an important position in agricultural production value of EU, Germany, France, and productivity difference between 1973 and 2012 in milk yield and carcass meat per cow were investigated. In the study, 124,2% increasing in wheat, 314,4% increasing in sweetcorn, 130,1% increasing in milk productivity and 388,7% increasing in carcass meat weight were determined during the last 40 years in Turkey. These rates are higher than rates of EU, Germany and France. However, only in sweet corn production, Turkey’s productivity level is higher than EU average. Eventually, while agricultural policy applications boost productivity in EU’s agricultural production, due to insufficient agricultural support, Turkey’s productivity levels in agricultural productions are low comparing to EU countries’ productivity levels.

Keywords
European Union, Agricultural Production, Turkey, Productivity

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