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Abstract


Determining Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera aphanis var. aphanis) Risk Areas for Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) of Turkey by Geographic Information Systems
Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera aphanis var. aphanis mostly infects the wild and cultivated strawberries in Turkey. The disease affects leaves, stems and fruits. Mycelia of the fungi inhibit the photosynthesis and nutrients uptake from the host cells. This reduces yield, quality, and market value of the fruit. In Turkey, intense strawberry cultivations in Mediterranean and Aegean regions are mainly influenced by contamination levels of nursery plants. However, scattered wild strawberry cultivations (Fragaria vesca) in Marmara and Black Sea regions are mainly affected by environmental conditions, particularly by the climate. Determining spatial distribution of powdery mildew of wild strawberry in Turkey is important for plant protection experts, producers, and breeders. In this study, powdery mildew risk areas for wild strawberry in Turkey were spatially analyzed and mapped in geographic information systems (GIS). In analyzing and mapping process, climatic raster maps and optimal climatic requirements of the disease were utilized. According to the produced raster maps, disease risk areas concentrated in the Black Sea and Marmara geographic regions of Turkey between May and October. Powdery mildew risk areas covered maximum area (3141.18 km2) in October, and these areas were detected in Istanbul (2790.92 km2), Sinop (215.0 km2), and Giresun (155.26 km2) provinces, respectively. Accuracy assessment of each risk map was performed by using geo-referenced field data collected between May and October in 2015. Accuracy changed between 75.68% and 83.33% in monthly basis, and overall accuracy was determined as 80.00%. The results of this study supplied a good and reliable basis to control the disease.

Keywords
Ecology, early warning, GIS, powdery mildew, plant disease, wild strawberry


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